Clinical and biomechanical substantiation and modeling work of the muscles supporting horizontal balance of the pelvis
Background. A long-term pathological process in the hip joint leads to a disruption of its normal biomechanics. In this case, the muscles of the pelvic girdle suffer. Endoprosthesis of the hip joint helps to restore the support and movement in the operated joint, but does not restore the work of the muscles. So, a musculoskeletal dysfunction of the hip joint persists for a long time. Given the complexity of the study of muscle function, the purpose of this research is to create a universal mathematical model of the pelvic muscles to investigate the features of their function in providing a horizontal pelvic balance. Materials and methods. Based on the human skeleton, a physical model “lumbar spine — pelvis — hip” was simulated with the designation of the lines of muscular action and the angles of their attachment, and a design scheme was drawn up, taking into account the direction and strength of the muscles. The model is designed at the weight of the patient of 70 kg, the indices of the absolute magnitude of the forces developed by each muscle, the angles of attachment of the muscles and the magnitude of the shoulder strength of each muscle are taken from literary sources. Balance equations for the moments of the force of gravity and the total muscle torque of the forces were compiled. Results. To test the validity of the developed model, its work was studied using the example of hip joint arthroplasty. As the design conditions of the model, the situation was adopted, in which the “patient” stands on one leg, maintaining the horizontal balance of the pelvis. The performed calculations show that the model of the pelvic girdle muscles to ensure horizontal balance of the pelvis works with more than threefold safety factor, the results correspond to the literature data, therefore, the model is valid and can be used for appropriate calculations. Conclusions. A universal mathematical model for the work of pelvic girdle muscles has been created, which makes it possible to study and analyze the influence of various external factors on the possibility of a stable one-leg standing.
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