Characteristics of changes in neurological status in patients with genetic polyneuropathies at the stage of operative treatment
Background. Genetic polyneuropathies belong to systemic degenerative diseases of the nervous and muscular systems of genetic nature, which quite often lead to disorders of the musculoskeletal system. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the neurological condition of persons with genetic polyneuropathies at the stage of preoperative preparation. Materials and methods. 87 patients of the decreed group aged 12 to 57 years were examined. The control group consisted of 10 patients with traumatic injury of soft tissues and peripheral nerves of lower extremities and 10 patients with longitudinal flatfoot of young and middle age. All patients were subject to detailed orthopedic and neurological examination. Results. In all patients with genetic polyneuropathies, we have detected even, on both sides, reduction of tendon and periosteous reflexes in the lower extremities, which correlated with duration of the disease and the nature of genetic malformations. There was recorded a reduction of pain attenuation by the distal type: in the mild lesion — at the level of toes, in the moderate form — these violations have spread to the level of the tibia, and in the severe forms they reached the middle third of the tibia or the level of the knee joints. In mild genetic polyneuropathy, vibration sensitivity in feet was decreased up to 12–14 seconds (in patients in the control group it was about 15–16 seconds or more), in the moderate level of the process — up to 7–11 seconds, in severe forms — up to 0–4 seconds. Motor function disorders in polyneuropathic foot were reduced to the symmetric decrease of muscle strength in the distal limbs, and 12 patients with the severe form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth had paresis of the feet, 2 patients had the symptoms of proximal amyotrophy of the leg muscles. The vast majority of patients had significant vegetative trophic disorders of the segmental level, mainly in the distal segments of legs. In particular, changes occurred in the skin. In the distal segments of legs in 48 patients, it was dry, desquamated, with numerous fissures, hyperkeratosis, roughness, calluses (especially in soles). Swelling on the dorsum of the foot was diagnosed in the lower third of the tibia as well. The vascular pattern was abnormal in 36 patients by parasympathicotonic type, and in 19 patients — by sympathicotonic. Nails were atrophic, with their color changed. Trophic changes were also observed in soft tissues located deeper. Conclusions. Genetic neuropathies are accompanied with severe orthopedic disorders, predominantly in the skeletal structures of the foot. Pathognomonic characteristics for the choice of surgical treatment in patients with genetic polyneuropathies are the nature of autonomic trophic disorders and the degree of changes in the complex types of sensitivity in feet, in particular, vibration sensitivity.
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