Preoperative preparation of patients for hip joint replacement
Background. The influence of muscles — pelvic stabilizers on preservation of the postural balance in patients with coxarthrosis was analyzed, and the working hypothesis was developed, according to which the positional adaptation of the hip endoprosthesis components during surgery is determined by the state of these muscles. The purpose of the work is to develop a method for preoperative physical therapy, which has a positive effect on the state of muscles — horizontal pelvic stabilizers, to optimize the positional adaptation of the hip endoprosthesis components during surgery. Materials and methods. The method of exercises performing from the facilitated initial position is developed. To increase the strength of pelvic muscles, exercises are being performed with counteraction to maximum resistance, with a gravitationally unloaded joint. To increase the volume of movements in the hip joint, exercises are performed on gravitationally unloaded joint with elongation or using special elastic traction, using swaying and passive exercises. Increased tone of muscle groups (adductors, flexors) is eliminated by means of relaxing techniques and passive exercises. The tone of hypotrophic muscles (abductors, extensors) is increased by stimulating massage. The pain syndrome is reduced by the extension of the lower limb due to the dose cuff extraction, as well as part of the exercises. The results of the work were tested in a group of 10 patients with unilateral coxarthrosis, in whom we used a method of preoperative treatment developed by us. The results of treatment and the effectiveness of the proposed method were evaluated according to our method for evaluating the function of the muscles responsible for the postural balance. Results. Clinical testing of the developed method of preoperative treatment showed that after the course of exercise the-rapy before surgery, some patients noted a decrease in the pain level, increase in the movements of the affected hip joint, subjective improvement in support ability of the compromised limb and improved quality of life. Comparison of the size of the abductor moment arm before surgery and after arthroplasty showed that in any case, there was no discrepancy in the indicators of more than 5 mm, suggesting that the positional adaptation of the hip endoprosthesis components depends on the state of soft tissues surrounding the hip joint. And it can be argued that eliminating the muscular contracture of adductors and hip flexors, as well as restoring the elasticity and strength of the abductors and extensor hips, provides optimal positional adaptation of the hip endoprosthesis components. Conclusions. Previous studies have shown that patients receiving a special course of exercise therapy, due to the elimination of muscular contracture and restoration of elasticity and strength of abductors and hip extensors, provide optimal positio-nal adaptation of the hip endoprosthesis components, but confirmation of the reliability of the research requires further observations.
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