DOI: https://doi.org/10.22141/1608-1706.4.19.2018.142105

The structure of disability among the victims of road accidents in Ukraine

S.O. Guriev, D.M. Yaroviy, V.A. Kushnir

Abstract


The article deals with the problem of disability of the victims due to car accidents, the structure of disability in the aspect of clinical and epidemiological characteristics and based on the involvement in the road traffic. The objective is to study the clinico-anatomical and clinico-epidemiological structure of disability among the victims of road accidents as the basis for further study of the process. At the premises of Kyiv City Specialized Trauma Medical and Social Expert Commission, we have carried out an analysis of 140 cases of disability resulting from road accidents, with evaluation of following indicators: the sexual composition of the victims, the distribution of patients based on the involvement in the road traffic, on the localization of injuries, disability category. In particular, the distribution of victims in disability groups by gender is provided. There is a certain difference between the distribution by gender in different disability groups. Namely, there is a decrease in the proportion of affected women and, accordingly, an increase in the proportion of men with increasing severity of disability. Thus, it is established that primarily males have the most severe forms of disability. The onset and degree of disability significantly depend on the involvement in the road traffic. The distribution of groups based on disability indicates that drivers have injuries leading to the second and third disability categories, with the difference of 12.4 % between the second and third categories. On the other hand, the second category prevails over the third in pedestrians by 10.5 % of the basic level. That is, it can be argued that the most serious injuries occur in pedestrians and drivers. It is very interesting from a scientific and practical point of view that the occurrence of disability depends on the clinical and anatomical form of trauma. Among the first disability category, the largest specific weight belongs to the patients with shin and thigh injuries (32 %), and only 8 % have spinal injuries. In the second disability group, shin damages also have the largest specific weight (43.6 %), on the second place — spinal injuries (28.2 %), of which 24.2 % — damage to the lumbar spine. Among the third disability category, pelvic injuries are most common ones (25.4 %), followed by hip injuries (18.2 %) and damage to the talocrural region (16.4 %). It to a certain extent highlights the features of the damage and the results of treatment. One of the main conclusions of the study is that indicators of disability as a result of road accidents are one of the effectiveness criteria when provi-
ding medical care for victims at various stages and can be an objective basis for the development of scientifically based principles, measures and medical technologies for rehabilitation aimed at improving the quality and availability of medical help to the victims of acci-dents at various stages.


Keywords


disability; clinical and nosological characteristics; polytrauma; road accident

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