Evaluating the effectiveness of the technology of single-event multi level surgery in children with cerebral palsy
Background. Cerebral palsy is a non-progressive lesion of the developing brain in children, but the associated pathology of the musculoskeletal system often progresses in the growing body of the child. The interrelated combination of disorders such as contractures and joint instability, muscle dysfunction, bone deformities at different levels affect the quality and effectiveness of gait in children with cerebral palsy. Treatment of orthopedic pathology in children with cerebral palsy requires understanding of the biomechanical mechanisms of formation of these disorders and the features of neurological deficits during the development of the child’s body and plays a major role in reducing the functional limitations associated with musculoskeletal disorder. Single-event multilevel surgery (SEMLS) is the gold standard for the treatment of orthopedic pathology in children with cerebral palsy to avoid repeated surgical interventions. The goal of SEMLS is to correct all deformities of the musculoskeletal system that affect the quality of support and walking in one surgical session. The surgical procedure includes the correction of rigid muscle contractures by lengthening the tendons, eliminating muscle imbalance with tendon transplants, correction of bone deformities, and measures aimed at stabilizing the joints. Materials and methods. A retrospective study of treatment from 2006 to 2016 was conducted, it included 270 children (145 boys and 125 girls) aged 3 to 18 years. All children were divided into 2 groups: in the first group, multistage interventions (227 interventions on 340 segments) were performed on one segment; in the second group — SEMLS (120 interventions on 602 segments) were used. Results. A comparative analysis of the remote results of treatment was performed in both groups of patients according to the following criteria: the total duration of the bed-day for the next year from the beginning of treatment; the total duration of immobilization; the duration of rehabilitation before the start of walk. In accordance with the obtained results it was revealed that in children in the study group, the total duration of bed days was by an average of 25 ± 4 days less than in the control group; the total duration of immobilization, if necessary, was also by an average of 25 ± 4 days less than in the control group; the duration of rehabilitation before the start of walking is 3.5 months, in contrast to the control group, in which this period is 6.5 months. Conclusions. Treatment of children with cerebral palsy is a complex problem and should be built on the principles of stages. In the absence of the effect of conservative treatment for contractures of the lower extremities at the age of 2–3 years and older, there is a need to perform surgeries on soft tissues, from the proximal extremities to the distal ones, followed by the continuation of combination treatment. When carrying out treatment by this method, it is easier to adhere to the stage and sequence of therapy (conservative — surgical — rehabilitation). The time of children’s stay in hospital and rehabilitation centers is significantly lower, which significantly reduces the cost of treatment and makes it possible to receive secondary special education.
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