DOI: https://doi.org/10.22141/1608-1706.5.20.2019.185562

Diagnostic methods and classifications of aseptic necrosis of the femoral head

I.M. Zazirnyi, V.G. Klimovytskyi, I.P. Semeniv, O.M. Mikhalchenko, B.S. Ryzhkov

Abstract


Aseptic femoral head necrosis (AFHN) is a common hip joint disease. AFHN is not a specific process, but rather the end of a series of disorders that lead to a decrease in blood flow in the femoral head, which leads to cell necrosis. In most cases, diagnosis is made in the later stages of the disorder, when surgical treatment that can preserve the femoral head and prevent destruction of the hip joint is no longer shown. This usually affects middle-aged patients who are more active. Therefore, many surgeons are trying to delay their performance of total hip replacement. Patient analysis and comparison are problematic and have difficulty assessing progression and determining the stage of the disease without a commonly recognized classification system and data collection method. Several ANFH classification systems are described and used. Currently, the most commonly used classifications include Ficat, Steinberg, Association Research Circulation Osseous (ARCO), and the Japan Investigation Committee (JIC). Several other classification systems, such as Kerboul et al., Are less commonly used. Each classification evaluates a slightly different criterion in the assessment of the ANSP. While Ficat uses conventional radiographs to determine the stage and progression of the disease, Steinberg combined radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to estimate the extent of the lesion. The ARCO system improved the Ficat classification by including radiographs, computed tomography, MRI and scintigraphy to determine the size and location of the necrotic area [16]. The JIC classification, adopted by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan, uses the T1 weighted MRI regimen to classify osteonecrosis based on the localization of necrotic lesions. Classification systems provide the orthopedist with the opportunity to differentiate this clinically complex disease according to severity, prognosis, and indications for different treatment options. The success of the ANFH treatment is directly related to the stage of the lesion. As soon the diagnosis is made, the greater the chance to influence the mechanisms of development of this pathology. Clinical symptoms usually precede radiological changes, so suspicion of the development of ANFH and the appointment of appropriate diagnostic techniques is an important point in the timely diagnosis. We wanted to show the most commonly used ANFH classification systems and the important factors to consider in each in this review.

Keywords


aseptic necrosis; femoral head; diagnosis; classifications; review

References


Steinberg M.E., Hayken G.D., Steinberg D.R. A quantitative system for staging avascular necrosis. J. Bone Joint Surg. Br. 1995. 77. 34-41.

Ficat R.P., Arlet J. Ischemia and Necrosis of Bone. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1980. 29-52.

Marcus N.D., Enneking W.F., Massam R.A. The silent hip in idopathic aseptic necrosis: Treatment by bone-grafting. J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 1973. 55. 1351-1366.

Garino J.P., Steinberg M.E. Total hip arthroplasty in patients with avascular necrosis of the femoral head: A 2- to 10-year follow-up. Clin. Orthop. 1997. 334. 108-115.

Ohzono K., Saito M., Sugano N., Takaoka K., Ono K. The fate of nontraumatic avascular necrosis of the femoral head: A radiologic classification. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 1992 Apr. 277. 73-8.

Mont M.A., Hungerford D.S. Non-traumatic avascular necrosis of the femoral head. J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 1995. 77. 459-474.

Kerboul M., Thomine J., Postel M., Merle d’Aubigne R. The conservative surgical treatment of idiopathic aseptic necrosis of the femoral head. J. Bone Joint Surg. Br. 1974. 56. 291-296.

Nakamura T., Matsumoto T., Nishino M., Tomita K., Kadoya M. Early magnetic resonance imaging and histologic findings in a model of femoral head necrosis. Clin. Orthop. 1997. 334. 68-72.

Kokubo T., Takatori Y., Ninomiya S., Nakamura T., Kamogawa M. Magnetic resonance imaging and scintigraphy of avascular necrosis of the femoral head. Prediction of subsequent segmental collapse. Clin. Orthop. 1992. 277. 54-60.

Conway W.F., Totty W.G., McEnery K.W. CT and MR imaging of the hip. Radiology. 1996. 198. 297-307.

Sakamoto M., Shimizu K., Iida S., Akita T., Moriya H., Nawata T. Osteonecrosis of the femoral head: A prospective study with MRI. J. Bone Joint Surg. Br. 1997. 79. 213-219.

Brody A.S., Strong M., Babikian G., Sweet D.E., Sei-del F.G., Kuhn J.P. Avascular necrosis: Early MR imaging and histologic findings in a canine model. AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 1991. 157. 341-345.

Shimizu K., Moriya H., Akita T., Sakamoto M., Suguro T. Prediction of collapse with magnetic resonance imaging of avascular necrosis of the femoral head. J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 1994. 76. 215-223.

Koo K.H., Kim R. Quantifying the extent of osteonecrosis of the femoral head: A new method using MRI. J. Bone Joint Surg. Br. 1995. 77. 875-880.

Sugano N., Takaoka K., Ohzono K., Matsui M., Masuhara K., Ono K. Prognostication of nontraumatic avascular necrosis of the femoral head: Significance of location and size of the necrotic lesion. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 1994 Jun. 303. 155-64.

Abu-Shakra M., Buskila D., Shoenfeld Y. Osteonecrosis in patients with SLE. Clin. Rev. Allergy Immunol. 2003. 25. 13-24.

Brown T.D., Baker K.J., Brand R.A. Structural consequences of subchondral bone involvement in segmental osteonecrosis of the femoral head. J. Orthop. Res. 1992. 10. 79-87.

Brown T.D., Baker K.J., Pedersen D.R. Biomechanics of femoral head aseptic necrosis. Biomed. Eng-App Bas. C. 1993. 5. 9-12.

Brown T.D., Hild G.L. Pre-collapse stress redistributions in femoral head osteonecrosis. a three-dimensional finite element analysis. J. Biomech. Eng. 1983. 105. 171-176.

Brown T.D., Mutschler T.A., Fergusson A.B. A non-linear finite element analysis of some early collapse processes in femoral head osteonecrosis. J. Biomech. 1982. 15. 707-715.

Brown T.D., Way M.E., Fergusson A.B. Stress transmission anomalies in femoral heads altered by aseptic necrosis. J. Biomech. 1980. 13. 687-699.

Brown T.D., Way M.E., Fergusson A.B. Mechanical characteristics of bone in femoral capital aseptic necrosis. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 1981. 156. 240-247.

Hungerford D.M. Osteonecrosis: avoiding total hip arthroplasty. J. Arthroplasty. 2002. 17(4 suppl. 1). 121-124.

Ueo T., Tsutsumi S., Yamamuro T., Okumura H., Shimizu A., Nakamura T. Biomechanical aspects of the deve-lopment of aseptic necrosis of the femoral head. Arch. Orthop. Trauma Surg. 1985. 104. 145-149.

Yang J.W., Koo K.H., Lee M.C., Yang P., Noh M.D., Kim S.Y., Kim K.I., Ha Y.C., Joun M.S. Mechanics of femoral head osteonecrosis using three-dimensional finite element me-thod. Arch. Orthop. Trauma Surg. 2002. 122. 88-92.

Ficat R.P. Idiopathic bone necrosis of the femoral head. Early diagnosis and treatment. J. Bone Joint Surg. (Br.). 1985. 67. 3-9.

Seamon J., Keller T., Saleh J., Cui Q. The pathogenesis of nontraumatic osteonecrosis. Arthritis. 2012. 601763.

Mont M.A., Seyler T.M., Plate J.F. et al. Uncemented total hip arthroplasty in young adults with osteonecrosis of the femoral head: a comparative study. J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 2006. 88(Suppl. 3). 104-109.

Mont M.A., Seyler T.M., Marker D.R. et al. Use of metal-on-metal total hip resurfacing for the treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head. J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 2006. 88(Suppl. 3). 90-97.

Marker D.R., Seyler T.M., McGrath M.S. et al. Treatment of early stage osteonecrosis of the femoral head. J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 2008. 90(Suppl. 4). 175-187.

Jacobs B. Epidemiology of traumatic and nontraumatic osteonecrosis. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 1978. 130. 51-67.

Chughtai M., Piuzzi N.S., Khlopas A. et al. An evidence-based guide to the treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Bone Joint J. 2017. 99-B. 1267-1279.

Mont M.A., Ragland P.S., Etienne G. Core decompression of the femoral head for osteonecrosis using percutaneous multiple small-diameter drilling. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 2004. 429. 131-8.

Kim S.-Y., Kim Y.-G., Kim P.-T. et al. Vascularized compared with nonvascularized fibular grafts for large Osteonecrotic lesions of the femoral head. J. Bone Joint Surg. 2005. 87. 2012-2018.

Dean M.T., Cabanela M.E. Transtrochanteric anterior rotational osteotomy for avascular necrosis of the femoral head. Long-term results. J. Bone Joint Surg. (Br.) 1993. 75. 597-601.

Lee G.-C., Steinberg M.E. Are we evaluating osteonecrosis adequately? Int. Orthop. 2012. 36. 2433-2439.

Mont M.A., Marulanda G.A., Jones L.C. et al. Systematic analysis of classification systems for osteonecrosis of the femoral head. J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 2006. 88(Suppl. 3). 16-26.

Zibis A.H., Karantanas A.H., Roidis N.T. et al. The role of MR imaging in staging femoral head osteonecrosis. Eur. J. Radiol. 2007. 63. 3-9.

Steinberg M.E., Steinberg D.R. Classification systems for osteonecrosis: an overview. Orthop. Clin. N. Am. 2004. 35. 273-283.

Sugano N., Atsumi T., Ohzono K. et al. The 2001 revised criteria for diagnosis, classification, and staging of idiopathic osteonecrosis of the femoral head. J. Orthop. Sci. 2002. 7. 601-605.

Plakseychuk A.Y., Shah M., Varitimidis S.E. et al. Classification of osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Reliability, reproducibility, and prognostic value. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 2001. 386. 34-41.




Copyright (c) 2019 TRAUMA

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

 

© Publishing House Zaslavsky, 1997-2020

 

   Seo анализ сайта