Study of knee joint structural changes in rabbit osteoarthritis models and intra-articular injections of platelet rich plasma and bone marrow aspirate concentrate
Background. The article presents the results of an experimental study on the knee joint structural changes and morphometric evaluation of articular cartilage with the injections of platelet rich plasma and bone marrow aspirate concentrate. Materials and methods. Cartilage defect creation, anterior cruciate ligament intersection and medial meniscus resection were performed for the induction of osteoarthritis in rabbits. After 28 days, 0.9% NaCl, or platelet rich plasma, or bone marrow aspirate concentrate was administered intra-articularly; 0.9% NaCl or platelet rich plasma was injected intra-articularly in 14 days. After 2 months, histological and morphometric examination of the epiphyseal surface of the femur and tibia was performed. Results. Animal models showed identical diameter of epiphyseal cartilage defect, chondrocyte reduction (by 55.1 %), reduction of periphocal articular surface thickness (by 53.2 %) and relative bone density of epiphysis (by 48.5 %). Modeling of the joint defect was not limited to the area of damage and caused degenerative changes of the articular cartilage of the tibia. Statistical analysis showed that the introduction of platelet rich plasma had no preventive effect on the degenerative changes in the articular surface. In the bone marrow aspirate concentrate group, the thickness of the hyaline cartilage of the tibia was found to be 15.3 % (P < 0.05) greater compared with the 0.9% NaCl group and the double platelet rich plasma group. However, the relative density of subepiphyseal bone tissue in the experimental groups with osteoarthritis had no differences. Conclusions. The effect of platelet rich plasma and bone marrow aspirate concentrate on knee joint structural changes in rabbit osteoarthritis models was investigated. Statistically significant preservation of the tibial cartilage height in the group of animals using bone marrow aspirate concentrate/platelet rich plasma was demonstrated.
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