Features of conservative treatment of patients with post-traumatic stiff interphalangeal joints
Background. In the structure of complications after a finger injury, contractures of the interphalangeal joints occupy a key place and range from 25 to 38 %. Purpose: to improve the results of treatment of patients with post-traumatic contractures of the interphalangeal joints by optimizing early functional mobilization. Materials and methods. The results of conservative treatment of post-traumatic interphalangeal joints contractures of 60 fingers are analyzed. Patients are divided into two clinical groups: the first group (29 patients) consisted of patients with isolated contractures of the interphalangeal joints of the finger, the second group involved 31 people with multiple contractures of the fingers. Patients are dynamically observed on days 5–7, in 3 months and 1 year after treatment using a point system for assessing the functional state of the hand and the QuickDASH score. Results. Two types of clinical rehabilitation programs of conservative treatment are offered. According to the first, rehabilitation measures are based on the early conduct of dosed functional mobilization, overcoming edema with the use of drug therapy and taping, the minimum amount of physiotherapy treatment for 10–14 days. The second program provides for intensive rehabilitation treatment using dynamic splint, measures for conservative mobilization of the capsule-ligamentous apparatus, which included injections of chondroprotective drugs, physiotherapy, heat therapy, kinesiotherapy, and psychological correction. According to the scoring scale and QuickDASH, on the 5–7th day after the start of treatment, the functional deficit begins to decrease in all examined patients, and after 3 months the indicator decreases by more than half (p < 0.001) in all groups and subgroups of the observation. Comparing the results of treatment after 1 year in groups I and II, we can state a greater number of positive results in the group of isolated contractures — 52.4 % of mild disorders versus 29.2 % in the group of multiple contractures (p = 0.113). Conclusions. Statistically significantly better rates of restoration of the functional state of the hand (p < 0.05), both on a scale of a score system of assessment (reduction of function deficit by 77.5 % after 1 year for isolated and by 68.4 % for multiple contractures) and according to the QuickDASH scale (reduction of function deficit by 75.1 % after 1 year for isolated contractures and by 50.0 % for multiple contractures), when applying the proposed rehabilitation methods, indicate the effectiveness of our approach to rehabilitation.
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