Clinical and pathogenetic features of the joint syndrome in rheumatoid arthritis with comorbid periodontitis
Keywords:rheumatoid arthritis, periodontitis, course, etiology, pathogenesis
Background. The accumulation of bacteria in the oral cavity of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) increases the incidence of periodontal tissue lesions, but there is also an inverse relationship between both diseases when comorbid periodontitis contributes to the occurrence of RA. Endotoxemia caused by periodontitis can increase the sensitivity of RA patients to autoantigens and participate in the pathogenetic structures of both diseases. RA and periodontitis have similar osteoclasia, allelic genes, and a general imbalance in the state of the cytokine network. The purpose and objectives of the study: to study the frequency and nature of the course of comorbid chronic generalized periodontitis in patients with RA, to determine its etiological factors, to assess the degree of its influence on clinical and X-ray sonographic signs of the articular syndrome. Material and methods. The study included 173 RA patients aged 18–76 years (average 46 years), among whom there were 20.8 % men and 79.2 % women. The duration from the disease onset averaged 10 years. The frequency of seropositivity of RA for rheumatoid factor in the blood was 74.6 %, and for antibodies to citrulline cyclic peptide — 72.8 %. The I, II, and III degrees of disease activity, respectively, were determined in 26.0, 43.9, and 30.1 % of cases, and the ratio of I, II, III, and IV stages of the pathological process was 1 : 6 : 5 : 3. To assess the number of aerobic and facultative anaerobic microorganisms vegetating on the gingival mucosa, the method of sterile paper discs was used. Clinical, X-ray and ultrasound examination of the joints, a study of biochemical, enzyme-linked immunosorbent and physicochemical parameters of blood and oral washings, determination of the integral severities of the underlying and comorbid pathology were carried out. Results. Chronic generalized periodontitis was diagnosed in 45.7 % of RA patients (the ratio of men to women is 1 : 4), the development of which was closely related to the activity and stage of articular syndrome, the presence of systemic osteoporosis, seropositivity of the disease for rheumatoid factor and antibodies to cyclic citrulline peptide, and in the etiology of periodontitis, Moraxella, Pseudomonas, Staphylococci, Streptococci, Bacterioids, Eubacteria, Fusobacteria, Propionibacteria, and Sarcina are of paramount importance, and in its pathogenesis — interleukin 1β. At the same time, the pathology of the oral cavity itself is involved in the pathogenetic constructions of osteoporosis, lesions of the maxillary, wrist, and knee joints, the formation of arthrocalcifications, and the development of Sjogren’s syndrome. Conclusions. The obtained data dictate the need to develop new approaches to medical technology of individual pathogenetic therapy of RA, taking into account the presence and etiology of comorbid periodontitis, identifying criteria that allow assessing the activity of the pathological process, predicting the nature of the course of the disease and the effectiveness of therapeutic measures.
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