Role of plantar aponeurosis in the formation of cavus component in recurrent congenital equinocavovarus deformity
Keywords:congenital equinocavovarus deformity, plantar aponeurosis
Background. Congenital equinocavovarus deformity (CECVD) is the second most frequent among all congenital disorders of the musculoskeletal system in children, and one of the most common causes of childhood disability in Ukraine. The incidence of CECVD reaches 1–3 cases per 1,000 newborns (35–40 % of all foot deformities). According to some authors, plantar fasciotomy can improve the shape and function of support and walking in these patients. The purpose was to determine the role of plantar aponeurosis in the formation of the cavus component in cases of recurrent CECVD in children. Material and methods. Mathematical researches were carried out using the graph-analytical method. Results. To reduce the arch height when correcting pes cavus, it is necessary to increase significantly the length of the aponeurosis (up to 25 % of its initial length). To perform this task, a significant tensile force must be applied to the aponeurosis, the value of which depends on the magnitude of a decrease in the arch height. So, to reduce the arch height by 10 mm, it is necessary to lengthen the aponeurosis by 12 mm, for which a constant force of 932 N must be applied to it. To reduce the arch height by 20 mm, the magnitude of the tensile force applied to the aponeurosis must be increased to 1,438 N, which is almost impossible. Therefore, the presence of a shortened aponeurosis is a significant obstacle for the effective correction of pes cavus. Conclusions. Correction of pes cavus requires a significant decrease in the height of its longitudinal arch, which leads to a significant lengthening of the aponeurosis, up to 25 % of its initial length. To ensure an increase in the length of the aponeurosis, the presence of a significant constant tensile force that exceeds 1000 N is necessary. Plantar aponeurosis plays a direct role in supporting the longitudinal arch of the foot, and is one of the causes for the persistence of pes cavus in patients with recurrent CECVD, which does not respond to conservative treatment. To correct cavus foot, in the failure of conservative treatment, it is necessary to lengthen it by surgical intervention (intersection). The value of the angle of the longitudinal arch of the foot of 110° can be chosen as a criterion for choosing a decision in favor of preserving or resection of the aponeurosis.
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