Analysis of surgical treatment of patients with primary tumors of the thoracic and lumbar spine
Keywords:tumor, spine, surgical treatment
Oncological radicalism (the scope of surgical treatment) and restoration of the supporting function of the spine remain the most pressing issues of surgical treatment for tumors. Purpose of the work: to analyze the outcomes of surgical treatment of patients with primary tumors of the thoracic and lumbar spine based on the appropriate rating scales. Materials and methods. Forty-three patients, 22 women and 21 men aged 18 to 72 years, with benign and malignant primary tumors and tumor-like lesions of the spine were examined; they were treated at the Department of vertebrology of the Sytenko Institute of Spine and Joint Pathology of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine. Localization of the lesions was as follows: cervical spine — 5 patients, thoracic — 17, lumbar — 19, sacrum — 2. According to the pathomorphological classification of primary tumors and tumor-like lesions of the World Health Organization, the patients were divided into those with benign (n = 26) and malignant (n = 17) tumors. The results of surgical treatment for primary spinal tumors were analyzed using the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) scale, Spinal Instability Neoplastic Score (SINS), Bilsky scale; the localization of tumors in different segments of the spinal column was considered as well. Results and discussion. We evaluated the outcomes of surgical treatment of spinal tumors for the following indications: radical surgery, the presence of complications, the dynamics of neurological and orthopedic disorders, the presence of tumor recurrence and the life expectancy of patients. Radical tumor resection within healthy tissues was performed in 17 of 19 patients, who had indications for the use of this method. Twenty-four patients underwent surgical treatment in the form of decompression of the spinal canal and partial tumor resection to restore the supporting function of the spine. In 2 cases, ablasticity was not achieved. Conclusions. According to the ASIA, SINS, Birsky scales, it was found that surgical intervention in primary tumors of the spine is justified, it prevents neurological complications, significantly reduces existing neurological disorders, and prolongs the life of patients. The choice of the scope of surgical intervention aimed at restoration of the supporting function of the spine according to these scales is not shown. Treatment of primary tumors of the spine should include both radical removal of atypical tissues within the healthy tissues and palliative treatment if indicated. It is important to restore the supporting function of the spine in the area of its damaged segments.
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