Diagnosis of tarsal coalitions


  • O.A. Turchin State Institution “Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine”, Kyiv, Ukraine
  • V.M. Piatkovskiy State Institution “Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine”, Kyiv, Ukraine
  • T.M. Omelchenko Bogomolets National Medical University, Kyiv, Ukraine
  • A.P. Liabakh State Institution “Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine”, Kyiv, Ukraine




tarsal coalition, foot, rearfoot, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging


Tarsal coalitions (TC) are congenital abnormal connections of the rearfoot bones. They occur in 1 to 13 % of all population. The article deals with the features of clinical and instrumental diagnosis of TC according to the literature. The main clinical manifestations are pain syndrome in the subtalar area, rigid flat foot; peroneal spastic flat foot is possible. Radiographic imaging of TC includes direct and indirect signs. To verify bone coalition, computed tomo-graphy is indicated, in cases of cartilaginous and fibrous — magnetic resonance imaging. Despite the long history of studying the problem, the diagnosis of TC remains a live issue today. Difficulties in diagnosing this pathology are due to the lack of physicians’ awareness of the clinical and radiographic picture of TC. Classical orthopedic exa-mination and suspicion of possible TC will allow detecting pathology in time and avoiding inappropriate treatment. The use of modern imaging techniques, such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, helps increase the accuracy of TC diagnosis.


Klammer G., Espinosa N., Iselin L.D. Coalitions of the tarsal bones. Foot Ankle Clin. 2018. 23(3). 435-449. doi: 10.1016/j.fcl.2018.04.011.

Kothari A., Masquijo J. Surgical treatment of tarsal coalitions in children and adolescents. EFORT Open Rev. 2020. 26. 5(2). 80-89. doi: 10.1302/2058-5241.5.180106.

Prado M.P., Mendes A.A., Olivi R. et al. Cuboid-navicu-lar tarsal coalition. Rev. Bras. Ortop. 2015. 12. 45(5). 497-9. doi: 10.1016/S2255-4971(15)30443-2. PMID: 27047815.

Mosca V.S. Subtalar coalition in pediatrics. Foot Ankle Clin. 2015. 20(2). 265-81. doi: 10.1016/j.fcl.2015.02.005.

Leboucq H. De la Soudure Congenitale de Certains Osdu Tarse. Bull. Acad. R. Med. Belg. 1890. 4. 103-112.

Farid A., Faber F.W.M. Bilateral triple talocalcaneal, calcaneonavicular, and talonavicular tarsal coalition: A Case Report. J. Foot Ankle Surg. 2019. 58(2). 374-376. doi: 10.1053/j.jfas.2018.08.047.

Buffon G.L. Histoire naturalle generale et particulare. Avec la description du cabinet du Roi. Paris, 1750.

Kermisson E. Double pied bot varus par malformation ossseuse primitive associe a des ankyloses congenitales des 73 doigts et des arteils chez quatre membres d’une meme famille. Rev. Orthop. 1898. 9. 392-398.

Harris R.I., Beath T. Etiology of peroneal spastic flat foot. J. Bone Joint Surg. 1948. 30-B(4). 624-634.

Docquier P.L., Maldaque P., Bouchard M. Tarsal coalition in paediatric patients. Orthop. Traumatol. Surg. Res. 2019. 105(1S). S123-S131. doi: 10.1016/j.otsr.2018.01.019.

Venugopal Guduri, Mark A. Dreyer. Talocalcaneal Coalition. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing. 2020. PMID: 31751043.

Korvin H. Coalitio talocalcanea. Z. Orthop. Chir. 1934. 60. 105-110.

Кенис В.М., Никитина Н.В. Тарзальные коалиции у детей (обзор литературы). Травматология и ортопедия России. 2010. 3(57). 159-165.

Ridley L.J., Han J., Ridley W.E. et al. Talar beak sign: Tarsal coalition. J. Med. Imaging Radiat. Oncol. 2018. 62(Suppl. 1). 164-165. doi: 10.1111/1754-9485.35_12786.

Taniguchi A., Tanaka Y., Kadono K. et al. C sign for diagnosis of talocalcaneal coalition. Radiology. 2003. 228(2). 501-505. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2282020445.

David A.L., Michael F.R., Andrew H.H. et al. Tarsal Coalitions: Radiographic, CT, and MR Imaging Findings. HSS J. 2014. 10(2). 153-166. doi: 10.1007/s11420-013-9379-z.

Herzenberg J.E., Goldner J.L., Martinez S. et al. Computerized tomography of talocalcaneal tarsal coalition: a clinical and anatomic study. Foot Ankle. 1986. 6. 273-288. https://www.ajronline.org/doi/10.2214/AJR.14.14082.

Kumar S.J., Guille J.T., Lee M.S. et al. Osseous and non-osseous coalition of the middle facet of the talocalcaneal joint. J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 1992. 74(4). 529-535. PMID: 1583047.

Rozansky A., Varley E., Moor M. et al. A radiologic classification of talocalcaneal coalitions based on 3D reconstruction. Journal of Children's Orthopaedics. 2010. 4. 2. Published Online https://doi.org/10.1007/s11832-009-0224-3.

Guignand D., Journeaua P., Mainard-Simardb L. et al. Child calcaneonavicular coalitions: MRI diagnostic value in a 19-case series. Orthopaedics & Traumatology: Surgery & Research. 2011. 97. 1. 67-72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.otsr.2010.09.015.

Радченко К.А., Гайко О.Г. МРТ-діагностика травм та захворювань надп’ятково-гомілкового суглоба та стопи (огляд літератури). Вісник ортопедії, травматології та протезування. 2020. 2. 43-52. doi: 10.37647/0132-2486-2020-105-2-43-52.

Nalaboff K.M., Schweitzer M.E. MRI of tarsal coalition: frequency, distribution, and innovative signs. Bull NYU Hosp. Jt. Dis. 2008. 66(1). 14-21. PMID: 18333823.

Soni J.F., Valenza W., Matsunaga C. Tarsal coalition. Curr. Opin. Pediatr. 2020. 32(1). 93-99. doi: 10.1097/MOP.0000000000000858. PMID: 31789975.





To General Practitioner