Structural Changes of Shoulder Joint in Experimental Modeling of Its Impaired Biomechanics
Deforming osteoarthritis of the shoulder joint — current and underinvestigated problem. One of the main factors in the development of arthrosis is a traumatic injury of the joint capsular ligaments, violation of joint mobility and inflammation. At the same time, the place of abnormal biomechanics remains unknown in the development of osteoarthritis of the shoulder joint as a monofactor of pathological condition. Objective: to investigate the role of limited biomechanics of the shoulder joint as a monopatogenetic factor in the development of osteoarthritis of the shoulder joint. Materials and methods. In the experiment, the model of osteoarthritis has been reproduced in guinea pigs, and the structural changes in the joint were investigated 3 months after. Cryosections were obtained from the decalcinated shoulder samples, histological and morphometric study was performed. Results and discussion. The structural damages of the articular surface of the humeral head and shoulder blade cavity were detected, as well as changes in the contour of the subchondral bone tissue, proliferative changes in the joint capsule. Disturbed mobility and altered zone of load caused the loss of 48 % (p < 0.01) of cartilage thickness in humeral articular surface and 14 % of the glenoid (p < 0.01). That is, a significant limitation of mobi-lity (biomechanics) of the shoulder joint leads to dystrophic changes of cartilage elements in both articular surfaces. Conclusions. Research results confirmed that impaired biomechanics of the shoulder joint movements is one of the monopatogenetic factors of osteoarthrosis.
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