Preoperative Incidence of Lower Extremity Venous Thrombosis in Patients with Femoral Neck Fractures

M.L. Ankin, T.M. Petryk, V.A. Ladyka, V.V. Roіenko

Abstract


Introduction. To date, topical issue of modern orthopedics and traumatology is the problem of lower extremity venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism that occurs in patients with fractures of the femoral neck. Objective — to study the relationship between the period from the date of injury and preoperative prevalence of thrombosis of the lower extremities in patients with femoral neck fractures. Material and methods. During 2013–2014, a cohort study was carried out at the premises of Kyiv regional clinical hospital № 1 in the orthopedic and trauma center in 96 patients with fractures of the femoral neck. The average age of patients — 75 ± 10 years, 78 % — women, 22 % — men. All patients underwent ultrasonography of the lower extremity veins at admission. Results. We have observed the greatest number of thrombosis from day 5 to 14 from the date of injury. When analyzing lower extremity thrombosis depending on the gender, it was detected in 13 women and 5 men out of 18 patients. The highest incidence of these complications was at the age of 75 years and older. Discussion. Venous thromboembolism is a major problem after surgical treatment of femoral neck fractures. We can anticipate the development of lower extremity venous thrombosis in the interval between the time of femoral neck fracture and the surgical intervention, because patients with this disease cannot independently move the injured limb during this period. Conclusions. 1. The main risk factor for lower extremity venous thrombosis in fractures of the femoral neck is the increase in the period from the date of injury to surgery. 2. Ultrasonography as an early screening method for the diagnosis of venous thromboembolic complications should be performed as soon as possible in all patients with femoral neck fractures; if it’s impossible to perform surgery within 48 hours, ultrasound diagnostics must be repeated. 3. A risk factor for the development of thrombosis of the lower limbs in the preoperative period is the age of the patients more than
75 years.


Keywords


femoral neck fracture; lower extremity venous thrombosis; hip replacement

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22141/1608-1706.4.17.2016.77492

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