Crystal-Induced Osteoarthritis: the Role of Basic Calcium Phosphate Crystals

I.Yu. Golovach

Abstract


Basic calcium phosphate crystals have long been associated with the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. Basic calcium phosphate crystals are frequently determined in the synovial fluid and articular cartilage in this disease. While deposition of basic calcium phosphate crystals has been considered by many scientists as a consequence of advanced osteoarthritis, there is substantial evidence that basic calcium phosphate crystals may be active pathogenic mediators of osteoarthritis. «Basic calcium phosphate crystals» — a general term used to describe several types of calcium phosphates, including carbonate-apatite, hydroxyapatite, tri- and octacalcium phosphate, magnesium whitlockite crystals. Basic calcium phosphate crystals are pathogenetically associated with osteoarthritis, calcifying tendinitis, acute crystal arthritis and atherosclerosis. Crystals of calcium are detected in the synovial fluid in 65 % of cases of knee osteoarthritis, they are frequently found in hyaline cartilage in osteoarthritis, as well as in 100 % of patients in articular cartilage during total hip replacement surgery. Basic calcium phosphate crystals have also been found in the synovial fluid and synovial membrane of patients with mild, moderate and severe involvement of knee joint during arthroscopy. Basic calcium phosphate crystals demonstrate a multiplicity of biologic effects in vitro, including the ability to stimulate mitogenesis, the production of prostaglandins, cytokines, and matrix metalloproteinase in a number of cell types, including synoviocytes, chondrocytes and macrophages. Basic calcium phosphate crystals also contribute to inflammation in osteoarthritis through a direct interaction with the innate immune system. The present review discusses the recent advances in this field and attempts to summarize our current understanding of the role of basic calcium phosphate crystals in osteoarthritis pathogenesis. Views on the role of basic calcium phosphate crystals in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis continue to expand, but today there is ample of experimental and clinical evidence of the critical role of calcium-containing crystals in the development of this disease, and progressive degeneration of the articular cartilage.


Keywords


osteoarthritis; basic calcium phosphate crystals; crystal-induced osteoarthritis; pathogenesis; inflammation

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22141/1608-1706.6.17.2016.88611

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