Comparative analysis of the validity of goniometric, inclinometric, and radiographic methods to measure ankle joint dorsiflexion


  • I.V. Kucher MNPE “Irpin Central City Hospital”, Irpin, Ukraine



ankle joint, goniometry, inclinometric method


Background. The search for an optimal method to assess the amplitude of ankle joint dorsiflexion remains topical for scientific discussions. The purpose of the research was to analyze the validity of goniometric and inclinometric methods for measuring the scope of ankle joint (AJ) dorsiflexion compared to radiological data. Materials and methods. The research included 25 healthy and physically active people (50 ankle joints), 18 men and 7 women with an average age of 25.8 ± 5.2 years; their mean body mass index was 25.01 ± 5.01 kg/m2. Ankle dorsiflexion measures were obtained in a weight-bearing lunge position using a double-plane goniometer and inclinometer, then compared with X-ray data. The measurement results were evaluated by descriptive statistics. Results. Mean values of AJ dorsiflexion obtained with a double-plane goniometer were 37.62 ± 5.56°; with an inclinometer — 40.61 ± 5.15°; radiological results — 23.69 ± 7.25°. Their difference was significant (p < 0.001). The mean variability index for the radiological method was 0.31 prevailing over goniometric (0.15) and inclinometric (0.13) methods (p < 0.001). X-ray ima-ging of a weight-bearing AJ at its maximum dorsiflexion raises the indicator of a talus-first metatarsal angle. Conclusions. The values of the dorsiflexion angle parameters of an AJ, measured using goniometric and inclinometric methods, significantly exceed those obtained by X-ray imaging. Higher variation index for radiological imaging demonstrates better reproducibility of inclinometry and goniometry when evaluating AJ dorsiflexion. A weight-bearing AJ radiogram at maximum extended position demonstrates an increase in a talus-first metatarsal angle compared to normal values that should be considered when interpreting the results of X-ray imaging of an AJ dorsiflexion.


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How to Cite

Kucher, I. (2022). Comparative analysis of the validity of goniometric, inclinometric, and radiographic methods to measure ankle joint dorsiflexion. TRAUMA, 22(6), 26–31.



Original Researches