Features of anatomy, classification of traumatic injuries of the thoracic spine (literature review)


  • S.O. Teslenko Sytenko Institute of Spine and Joint Pathology of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Kharkiv, Ukraine




spine, thoracic department, compression fracture, classification, review


Spinal fracture is a pathological condition that occurs due to a violation of the anatomical integrity of the spine. An analysis of the literature on the thoracic spine has shown that it differs markedly from other departments both anatomically and functionally. The thoracic vertebrae are anatomically different from the cervical and lumbar vertebrae, although the upper and lower vertebrae are adjacent. The main function of the thoracic spine, along with the ribs and sternum is to protect the chest, so damage to this complex can not be considered separately from each other. There are several classifications of thoracic spine injuries. Today the most common are: AO/ASIF classifications (Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Osteosynthesenfragen/Association for the Study of Internal Fixation); Load-sharing classification McCormack et al. and the Thoracolumbar Injury Severity Score (TLISS). All of them are additions and developments of the previous one and involve in the classification more and more signs of injuries of the thoracic spine, both morphological and neurological. Given the peculiarities of thoracic spine injuries and their anatomy, surgical treatment requires special care in the choice of tactics and tools.


Download data is not yet available.


Böhler L. Knochenbrüche und Unfallchirurgie in ihren Beziehungen zur Umwelt. Maudrich, Wien, 1933.

Bohlman H.H. Treatment of fractures and dislocations of the thoracic and lumbar spine. J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 1985 Jan. 67(1). 165-9. PMID: 3881446.

Borkowski S.L., Tamrazian E., Bowen R.E., Scaduto A.A., Ebramzadeh E., Sangiorgio S.N. Challenging the Conventional Standard for Thoracic Spine Range of Motion: A Systematic Review. JBJS Rev. 2016 Apr 5. 4(4). e51-e511. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.RVW.O.00048. PMID: 27487429.

Denis F. Spinal instability as defined by the three-column spine concept in acute spinal trauma. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 1984 Oct. (189). 65-76. PMID: 6478705.

Grant J.C.B. Grant Anatomi Atlası. 1. Baskı, Ankara, Güven Kitabevi Yayınları. 1977. 302-320.

Grossman S.D., Wolfe B.B., Yasuda R.P., Wrathall J.R. Alterations in AMPA receptor subunit expression after experimental spinal cord contusion injury. J. Neurosci. 1999 Jul 15. 19(14). 5711-20. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.19-14-05711.1999.

Holdsworth F.W. Fractures, Dislocations and Fracture-Dislocation of the Spine. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. 1963. 45. 6-20. Published Online. https://doi.org/10.1302/0301-620X.45B1.6.

Jones O., Theakston V. TeachMeAnatomy. Part: The Thoracic Spine. https://teachmeanatomy.info/thorax/bones/thoracic-spine/

Lenarz C.J., Place H.M., Lenke L.G., Alander D.H., Oliver D. Comparative reliability of 3 thoracolumbar fracture classification systems. J. Spinal Disord. Tech. 2009 Aug. 22(6). 422-7. doi: 10.1097/BSD.0b013e31818a38cd. PMID: 19652569.

Magerl F., Aebi M., Gertzbein S.D., Harms J., Naza-rian S. A comprehensive classification of thoracic and lumbar injuries. Eur. Spine J. 1994. 3(4). 184-201. doi: 10.1007/BF02221591. PMID: 7866834.

McCormack T., Karaikovic E., Gaines R.W. The load sharing classification of spine fractures. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1994 Aug 1. 19(15). 1741-4. doi: 10.1097/00007632-199408000-00014.

Tator C.H., Fehlings M.G. Review of the secondary injury theory of acute spinal cord trauma with emphasis on vascular mechanisms. J. Neurosurg. 1991 Jul. 75(1). 15-26. doi: 10.3171/jns.1991.75.1.0015.

Topsakal C., Erol F.S., Ozveren M.F., Yilmaz N., Ilhan N. Effects of methylprednisolone and dextromethorphan on lipid peroxidation in an experimental model of spinal cord injury. Neurosurg. Rev. 2002 Aug. 25(4). 258-66. doi: 10.1007/s101430100183.

Vaccaro A.R., Zeiller S.C., Hulbert R.J., Anderson P.A., Harris M., Hedlund R., Harrop J., Dvorak M., Wood K., Fehlings M.G., Fisher C., Lehman R.A. Jr, Anderson D.G., Bo-

no C.M., Kuklo T., Oner F.C. The thoracolumbar injury severity score: a proposed treatment algorithm. J. Spinal Disord. Tech. 2005 Jun. 18(3). 209-15. PMID: 15905761.

White A., Panjabi M. Clinical Biomechanics of the Spine. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1990.

Zileli M., Özer A.F. Omurilik ve omurga cerrahisi (1-2-3 Cilt Takım). Intertip Yayinevi, İzmir, 2014.



How to Cite

Teslenko, S. (2022). Features of anatomy, classification of traumatic injuries of the thoracic spine (literature review). TRAUMA, 23(2), 47–53. https://doi.org/10.22141/1608-1706.2.23.2022.890




Most read articles by the same author(s)