Animal models of immobilization contractures. Overview of methods and trends


  • V.O. Fishchenko National Pirogov Memorial Medical University, Vinnytsуa, Ukraine
  • Ayham Khasawneh National Pirogov Memorial Medical University, Vinnytsуa, Ukraine



animal model, immobilization contracture


Contractures are chronic loss of joint mobility caused by structural changes in bone tissue, including muscles, ligaments and tendons. They develop when these normally elastic tissues are replaced by inelastic tissues. The most common cause of contractures is immobilization. Contracture is a complex clinical problem because the nature of the injury often does not correlate with the degree of functional impairment, which makes it difficult to predict the risk of pathology. The study of the causative factors of contracture in patients may not be a common clinical practice for certain reasons, both related to the ethical side of the problem and the lack of time factor of observation. Animal models allow to study the pathogenesis of the disease and allow to evaluate treatment strategies. However, no animal model has been developed to assess the elbow joint, which is necessary to fully study and understand the clinical problems associated with this complex joint. The paper presents the main methods of modeling immobilization contractures in animals. There are 2 main approaches to modeling joint contractures — traumatic and non-traumatic. Traumatic, is surgical methods of fixation with needles, hooks, plates, etc. give a reliable fixation, but are often accompanied by complications such as edema, inflammation, infection of the area of intervention, as well as interfere with the purity of the experiment, when it is necessary to exclude tissue damage around the joint. Non-traumatic methods of modeling contractures, is with the help of exclusively external means of fixation exclude some of the negative effects of surgical methods, but are accompanied by insufficient reliability for a long time. Also, external fixation can cause swelling, skin irritation and other negative manifestations. Both methods of modeling contractures require constant monitoring during the experiment to level and prevent possible complications.


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How to Cite

Fishchenko, V., & Khasawneh, A. (2022). Animal models of immobilization contractures. Overview of methods and trends. TRAUMA, 23(2), 60–67.